Archive for the 'Conference, Courses and Trade Show Exhibits' Category

Mar 19 2014

LighTimes:CALiPER Publishes New Report on Retail-Bought LED Lamps

March 18, 2014…Since the second retail lamp study was published, in early 2012, the U.S. DOE says it has seen substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. CALiPER again purchased a sample of LED lamps from retail stores including a total 46 products–focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps — and has published a new report on the findings. The products were not chosen randomly, but were picked to answer specific hypotheses about performance to expanding ranges of LED equivalency, improving the accuracy of lifetime claims, and examine their efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs.

The CALiPER testing found very good LED-based alternatives to 60W, 70W, and 100W incandescent A19 lamps and 75W halogen PAR30 can now compete performance wise. The testing found that LED-based MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but now 35W/12V and 50W/120V halogen MR16s have acceptable LED-based alternatives. However, lamps for other uses, such as in enclosed luminaires, were found to need more development to be competitive.

The lamps purchased in 2013 at the same price point had higher output and slightly higher efficacy than those purchased in 2011 or 2010. Greater than 30 percent of the products purchased in 2013 exceeded the maximum efficacy measured in 2011 (71 lm/W). The most efficacious product purchased in 2013 operated at 105 lm/W.

The testing revealed apparently increasing consistency in color quality, with the vast majority of products having a correlated color temperature of 2700 K or 3000 K and a color rendering index between 80 and 85. Fewer poor-performing products were tested, and more high-performing products were available in 2013 than in previous years. While the accuracy of equivalency and performance claims improved compared to 2011, it remains a concern. About 43 percent of tested products failed to meet their equivalency claims, and 20 percent failed to match the manufacturer’s performance data.

The testing found insufficient lumen output was becoming less of an issue than previous testing indicated Other issues such as reducing cost, improving electrical/dimmer compatibility, eliminating flicker, and improving color quality still need work. The DOE notes that multiple high-quality, sub-$10 products are now available, and the availability of vastly superior products in 2013 is undeniable.

The DOE gives the example of 800-lumen A lamps that are now common, but were a rarity just two years ago. The testing found that a substantial portion of the products tested for the new report exceeded the lumen output and efficacy performance of the very best products from 2011.

The DOE warns that poor-performing products are still on the market, and the accuracy of equivalency claims and data remains a problem. Despite the progress, LED lamps available through retail stores continue to exhibit a range of quality. Therefore consumers, contractors, and specifiers have to be more educated than ever before to purchase products based on the performance of conventional products.

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Jan 17 2014

LighTimes: Market for AMOLED Light-Emitting Materials to Surge in 2014

January 16, 2014…A flood of new competitors set to initiate or increase the production of active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) panels next year, according to IHS. Therefore IHS predicts that demand for materials used to make AMOLEDs is forecast to rise by nearly 27 percent in 2014. IHS predicts that the global market for AMOLED light-emitting materials will expand to $445 million in 2014, up from $350 million this year, according to IHS Inc. While growth next year will moderate compared to the 49 percent rise in 2013, the market will swell by about $100 million in 2014, as presented in the attached figure.

“South Korea’s Samsung Display Co. Ltd. has successfully pioneered the AMOLED business during the last five years, attaining major success in the market for smartphone panels ranging in size from 3-inches to 5-inches,” said Doo Kim, principal analyst, display component and materials research. “Now other panel manufacturers are seeking to cash in on the expanding demand for AMOLEDs in smartphone, televisions and other products. This phenomenon will spur the continued increase in sales of materials used to create AMOLEDs in 2014.”

IHS notes that the organic light-emitting materials utilized in AMOLED panels can be largely divided into two categories: common functional layer materials and color-emitting materials. The common layer materials include hole transport layer (HTL), hole injection layer (HIL), electron transport layer (ETL), electron injection layer (EIL), capping layer (CPL), charged generation layer (CGL), electron blocking layer (EBL), efficiency enhanced layer (EEL) and RGB prime layer materials. Of these, the EBL and EEL materials are hardly used at this time, while the CGL material is used only in white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) panels. Materials such as PIN dopant are also adopted to improve efficiency.

The color-emitting materials are red, green and blue host and dopant materials. Also, yellow-green materials are used in white OLEDs. Samsung Display reportedly started the AMOLED market when it began large-scale mass production in 2008 and has since led the AMOLED market’s expansion. In 2013, LG Display Co. Ltd. of South Korea launched a WOLED TV panel and a flexible AMOLED panel. Meanwhile, AU Optronics Corp. (AUO) of Taiwan introduced samples of small- to medium-sized AMOLED panels. Next year, LG, AUO and Japan Display Inc. (JDI) are poised to begin increasing AMOLED panel production. As a result, IHS forecasts that light-emitting material makers will compete in a more diverse market environment with increased demand and a broader base of customers. This will represent a marked change from the last five years, when they depended wholly on demand from Samsung Display.

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Jan 17 2014

LighTimes: DOE Publishes Gateway Report about LED Lighting for Pedestrians

January 14, 2014…The U.S. Department of Energy has published the results of the Gateway demonstration of Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting. The DOE notes that outdoor lighting has mostly focused on vehicles, and has rarely focused on the needs specific to pedestrians. The U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Demonstration Program followed two pedestrian-focused projects at sites where the pedestrian-scale lighting needed improvement: Stanford University in California and the Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. The results from these demonstration projects reveal that pedestrians may have different criteria for lighting than drivers, especially in areas where cars are subordinate to bicycles and users on foot. Further the results indicate retrofit modules with optics are not created equally, and not all modules work in all applications. Additionally, the demonstrations concluded that not all optics are ideally suited for all applications.

At both sites, an iterative process was used to evaluate luminaires; collect feedback from residents, homeowners, and/or campus facilities groups; and use that feedback to try other options. In both cases, it became clear that users cared about the daytime appearance of the luminaire, found luminaire glare to be a significant factor in luminaire acceptability. Users clearly preferred luminaires that produced a soft-edged pattern of light on the ground, and they preferred a warm color of light (2700K to 3000K) given the character of their neighborhood and the fact that they were used to either incandescent sources or high-pressure sodium as a baseline The projects found that horizontal illuminances could be at the low end of IES-recommended levels as long as luminaire glare was reduced.

The demonstration projects found that smoothing out the luminance transition from high to low resulted in responses of greater visual comfort, even though glare metrics do not take this into account. Pedestrians found glare to be most uncomfortable when they were closest too the light source when walking within the zone of 0 to 75 degrees.

The DOE report notes that conventional lighting design for outdoor applications focuses on: illuminance or luminance on pavement; contrast of irregular paving and objects in the path of travel; uniformity (e.g., maximum-to-minimum illuminance or average-to-minimum illuminance); vertical illuminance on faces and targets; pole spacing and mounting height for economy and uniformity; luminaire distribution (“Cutoff” or BUG (backlight, uplight, glare) system ratings) for dark-sky considerations and some degree of glare control; and lighting system efficacy.

However, the DOE found that additional criteria that are needed for evaluating pedestrian lighting applications might also include: safety from tripping/falling; safety from being hit by vehicles, bicycles, or skateboarders; personal security from harm or intimidation by others; minimizing unwanted light in residential windows; appearance of the neighborhood/campus/area; minimizing glare that causes discomfort, is disabling, or affects viewer adaptation level.

The demonstration projects found that smoothing out the luminance transition from high to low resulted in responses of greater visual comfort, even though glare metrics do not take this into account. Pedestrians found glare to be most uncomfortable when they were closest too the light source when walking within the zone of 0 to 75 degrees.

The DOE report notes that conventional lighting design for outdoor applications focuses on: illuminance or luminance on pavement; contrast of irregular paving and objects in the path of travel; uniformity (e.g., maximum-to-minimum illuminance or average-to-minimum illuminance); vertical illuminance on faces and targets; pole spacing and mounting height for economy and uniformity; luminaire distribution (“Cutoff” or BUG (backlight, uplight, glare) system ratings) for dark-sky considerations and some degree of glare control; and lighting system efficacy.

However, the DOE found that additional criteria that are needed for evaluating pedestrian lighting applications might also include: safety from tripping/falling; safety from being hit by vehicles, bicycles, or skateboarders; personal security from harm or intimidation by others; minimizing unwanted light in residential windows; appearance of the neighborhood/campus/area; minimizing glare that causes discomfort, is disabling, or affects viewer adaptation level.

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Jan 17 2014

LighTimes: Lighting for Tomorrow 2014 Competition Launched

January 16, 2014…Lighting for Tomorrow launched its twelfth consecutive annual competition at the Dallas Market, January 15-19. In 2014, Lighting for Tomorrow is looking for products that meet market price points such as LED A-lamps under $10, fixtures under $50, and high lumen LED A-lamps as part of the solid state lighting competition. Similar to last year, Lighting for Tomorrow awards bonus points for lighting designed to meet the needs of the growing senior population and invites submissions of organic LED (OLED) luminiaires as part of the SSL competition.

The Lighting for Tomorrow continues to examine lighting control products, including stand alone, system, and whole house devices. Additionally, the competition continues to evaluate LED luminaires for specific applications, retrofit kits, and replacement lamps.

In 2008, the fluorescent fixture competition requested that all CFL-equipped chandeliers be able to dim. Following this advance, a fluorescent dimming competition in 2009 sought good quality dimming in both fixtures and CFLs. From 2010 to 2013, Lighting for Tomorrow held a lighting controls competition that required lighting control devices to be compatible with fluorescent or LED technology. This lighting controls competition will be continued in 2014.

The judging panel will be evaluating products based on functionality, ease of installation and use, innovation, and ability to work with other systems and existing luminaires. Lighting for Tomorrow seeks a broad range of residential LED products such as fixtures, retrofit kits, and replacement lamps. The competition increased its scope in 2013 with the inclusion of OLED fixtures, and plans to continue with this category in 2014. Entries will be judged on lighting performance, marketability, and energy efficiency. In 2013, ten winners, five honorable mentions, and two noteworthy products were selected including manufacturers Acuity Brands, Edge Lighting, Evolution Lighting, Juno Lighting, LEDnovation, Legrand, LITON lighting, Nesora Lighting, Philips Lighting, Prism Co. Ltd, Samjin Lnd Co. Ltd, SWITCH Lighting, and WAC Lighting.

The first deadline for intent to submit for this year’s competition is April 18, 2014. Winners will be announced during an award ceremony at the ALA Conference,September 16, 2014 in Nashville, Tennessee and will be eligible to be promoted by energy efficiency programs across the US and Canada during the following year. For complete guidelines and rules for the 2014 competition, see

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Dec 10 2013

LighTimes: GaN-on-Silicon LEDs Forecast to Increase to 40 Percent of Market Share by 2020, According to IHS

December 10, 2013…IHS Inc predicts that the penetration of gallium nitride-on-silicon (GaN-on-Si) wafers into the LED market will increase at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 69 percent from 2013 to 2020. IHS forecasts that by 2020, GaN-on-Silicon LEDs will account for 40 percent of all GaN LEDs manufactured.

In 2013, 95 percent of GaN LEDs will be manufactured on sapphire wafers. However, only 1 percent will be manufactured on silicon wafers. This will soon change according to IHS. The growth in the manufacturing of GaN-on-Si LEDs between 2013 and 2020 will take market share from both sapphire and silicon carbide wafers, according to IHS predictions. The accompanying figure shows the GaN-on-Si LED market share outlook in terms of revenue for the packaged LED market.

“Manufacturing large ingots made from sapphire is difficult, whereas silicon wafers are available from 8 inches up to 12 inches and are generally cheaper and more abundant,” said Dkins Cho, senior analyst for lighting and LEDs at IHS. “There is a large pre-existing industry for silicon-based manufacturing that is leveraged to create economies of scale and reduce the cost of an LED.”

IHS says that the shift to producing GaN-on-silicon LEDs is generally accepted to require minimal with manufacturers only having to repurpose their facilities. IHS notes that companies that previously manufactured CMOS semiconductors already own legacy 8-inch CMOS fabrication units that can be converted for LED production with a small modification. Furthermore, IHS says that these companies already have in-house expertise and technology associated with silicon-based processes.

“Many of the CMOS semiconductor manufacturers already have excellent inspection tools, unlike traditional LED companies,” Cho said. “This could help increase their process yield through in-situ monitoring. However, it is unlikely the repurposing will happen overnight; instead we forecast a shift during the coming years.”

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Dec 04 2013

LighTimes: The DOE Office of Science Announces SBIR/STTR Funding Opportunity

November 26, 2013…The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science has announced a funding opportunity for its Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs that may be of interest to the solid-state lighting (SSL) community. The DOE is requesting that the SSL community submit grant applications for fiscal year 2014 SBIR/STTR Phase I, Release 2 funding opportunities with the release of the announcement (FOA) DE-FOA-0001046. Specifically, the DOE SBIR/STTR funding opportunity announcement, (FOA) DE-FOA-0001046 seeks applicants for research and development of the subtopic: “integrating energy-efficient solid-state lighting with advanced sensors, controls, and connectivity.”

According to the DOE, other possible areas of interest related to SSL in the funding opportunity include: the use of advanced manufacturing processes such as 3-D printing and digital metal forming to create SSL lamps and luminaires in ways that were previously not possible; the use of fully automated assembly, advanced printing, and integrated electronics designs that may provide substantial opportunity to inexpensively and quickly manufacture high-quality SSL products; inexpensive and easily integrated components, sensors, control hardware, or control software.

The DOE is offering a free webinar to review the SBIR/STTR programs and the award process as it relates to this announcement on Tuesday, December 3, at 2:00 p.m. ET. Those interested in listening to and participating in the webinar must register. Letters of intent to submit proposals are due with the DOE’s Office of Science December 16, 2013. Full proposals are due February 4, 2014, with award notifications anticipated in April. For more information, visit

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Dec 04 2013

LighTimes: The US. Department of Energy has released a CALiPER Snapshot Report on LED-based A Lamps

December 3, 2013…The DOE’s CALiPER testing program examined omni directional and A-lamp LED lighting available with the Lighting Facts Label. The report is both encouraging and in some ways disappointing. They found a wide range of variation in the available LED-based A lamps in terms of luminous intensity distribution, color quality, dimming, and compatibility with other controls. More than 1700 new LED products (not just A-lamps) were added to the Lighting Facts database in just the third quarter of 2013 alone. About 60 percent of the 9680 currently available Lighting Facts labeled products were reportedly added in the past year.

The DOE says that that the average efficacy for all Lighting Facts labeled LED lamps introduced in Q3 of 2013 is 78 lm/W, the highest average so far. Since being introduced four years ago the average efficacy for all LED lamp types with the Lighting Facts label has reportedly increased an average of 9.5 lm/W per year. Although minimum efficacy has shown little improvement overall (likely due to certain specialty products), the DOE says that maximum efficacy has increased at a steady rate with the exception of one anomolous product introduced in the first quarter of 2013. The overall average efficacy of currently available LED lamps is 69 lm/W with what the DOE describes as having very large variation from 55 lm/W up to 84 lm/W. Notably, as of September 30 2014, Energy Star qualified A lamps will be required to have an efficacy of greater than 55lm/W or 65 lm/W, depending upon input power. The DOE says that the majority (64%) of A lamps (47 of 74) that were below 55 lm/W have been deactivated. Of those 27 active products only 5 were listed in the last year, and all of them are less than 466 lumens.

Energy Star requires a CRI of at least 80 and a CCT between 2700K and 6500. Of the A lamps, 91 percent have a CRI of 80-89 with the majority of those between 80 and 85. Only 4 of the active A lamp products listed have a CRI of 90 or higher. The vast majority of A lamps had a CCT of either 2700 K or 3000 K, with slightly more at 2700 K. At the same time, 22 percent of the listed A lamps have a CCT of 4000 or higher. The DOE points out that this is noticeably different than incandescent A lamps that they are designed to replace. Many of these 22 reportedly have a CRI lower than 80.

A majority of A lamps currently listed by LED Lighting Facts were found to have a power factor of 0.90 or greater. However, the percentage is noticeably lower than for all active products.

According to the DOE many Lighting Facts listed A lamps now have omni-directional light distributions. The DOE attributes this to the improved efficacy, that has led to the increasing flexibility of using optics. Despite all the improvements in light distribution and efficacy, the DOE found that only a handful of products can effectively replace 75 -Watt or 100-Watt A lamp incandescents. While an average CRI in the low 80s for these A lamps is good, the DOE points out that this is still lower than that of incandescents they are designed to replace.

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Nov 14 2013

LighTimes: Zhaga Publishes Book 7 and Book 8 Interface Specifications for LED Light Engines

November 14, 2013…Zhaga has published Book 7 and Book 8 interface specifications for LED light engines. Zhaga is an international organization that is enabling the interchangeability of LED light sources made by different manufacturers. The interface specifications, designated Book 7 and Book 8, can now be downloaded from the Zhaga website.

Book 7 covers a variety of rectangular and linear LED modules with separate electronic control gear that are primarily for use in indoor lighting applications. Book 8 describes a drum-shaped LED light engine (LLE) with integrated electronic control gear, primarily for downlighting applications. Book 7 modules are typically mounted directly into a luminaire by means of screws. Book 8 light engines can be inserted into a suitable socket inside the luminaire. Book 7 LED Light engines (LLEs) are intended to be replaced by qualified personal only. LED modules described in Book 7 have the following dimensions: L28W2 (maximum length 280 mm x maximum width 24 mm; L28W4 (281 x 41 mm); L28W6 (281 x 61 mm); L56W4 (561 x 41 mm); and L6W6 (60 x 60 mm). Within these dimensions, different configurations of LEDs are possible. The only restriction to the light-emitting surface (LES) is that no light is emitted in the direction of the reference plane of the LED module.

Zhaga Book 8 defines the interfaces of a socketable LLE with integrated control gear (a driver). The LLE has a round drum shape with maximum dimensions of 95 mm diameter and 45 mm height. It has a light emitting surface with a width in the range of 59 mm to 71 mm. Zhaga notes that Book 8 is similar to Book 2, except that the LLEs described in Book 8 have larger dimensions. The Book 8 LLE has a PHJ85d-type base with a diameter of 85 mm. The light engine is designed to be locked into a holder inside a luminaire by means of a twisting motion. The use of mechanical fit keying is present to ensure that the luminaire provides the correct mains voltage to the LLE. The light output from the Book 8 LLE is essentially lambertian, which enables the luminaire optics to shape the light distribution to the needs of the application. The light engine is intended primarily (but not exclusively) for use in LED luminaires for downlighting applications.

The Zhaga standard is intended to enable manufacturers to switch from one supplier to another without changing the design of the luminaire. Zhaga contends that this interchangeability can increase competition among suppliers, alleviate the risks of having a single source, and allow luminaire makers to take full advantage of light-engine performance enhancements.

Books 7 and 8 join Books 1, 2 and 3, which are already available for public use. The other approved Books are expected to be published shortly, and new specifications are in development. Zhaga interface specifications are made public as soon as each specification is stable and the certification procedure is fully established. Several Zhaga member companies have already received certification for a range of products that were designed according to either Book 7 or Book 8, including LED modules and holders. The database of Zhaga-certified products can be found on the Zhaga website.

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Nov 14 2013

LighTimes: Fraunhofer Institute Researchers Develop Method for Printing of OLEDs

November 12, 2013…Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research (IAP), Germany, collaborated with mechanical engineering company MBRAUN to develop a production facility that could fabricate inexpensive OLEDs and organic solar cells on an industrial scale. Usually, OLED fabrication requires an expensive process involving the vaporization of small molecules in a high vacuum. The researchers claim it is now possible to print OLEDs and solar cells from solutions of luminescent organic molecules and absorptive molecules respectively. The researchers assert that printing onto a carrier film is therefore straightforward with the newly developed method.

The printing technology of the pilot plant basically acts like an inkjet printing system, applying OLEDs to the carrier material one layer at a time with a variety of starting materials. According to the researchers, this produces a very homogenous surface that creates a perfect lighting layer. “We’re able to service upscale niche markets by offering tailored solutions, as we can apply the organic electronic system to customers’ specifications, just like in digital printing,” explained Wedel.

Previously, printing technologies were only used to design components on a laboratory scale. The researchers say they now can produce larger sample series such as large illuminated surfaces and information systems with tailored solutions produced in relatively small numbers. “We’re now able to produce organic components under close-to-real-life manufacturing conditions with relative ease. Now for the first time it will be possible to translate new ideas into commercial products,” says Dr. Armin Wedel, head of division at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research in Potsdam-Golm.

“The focus in Germany and Europe is on OLED lighting because this is the home market for large companies such as Osram and Philips,” Wedel said. “The manufacturing facility will help secure competitive advantages in this particular segment of the market. It strengthens the German research community, and also demonstrates the capabilities of German plant engineering,” says Dr. Martin Reinelt, CEO of MBRAUN in Garching

The researchers note that several obstacles have to be overcome to make OLEDs more practical for lighting and displays. “The main hurdle, as far as I’m concerned, is the high level of investment required to set up manufacturing,” says Wedel. This is why, at least where lighting is concerned, he expects OLEDs to complement rather than replace conventional lighting devices. However he belives that OLED production technology could eventually make OLEDs on demand. “My vision is that the day will come when all we need do is switch ink cartridges in our printers in order to print out our own lighting devices.”

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Nov 10 2013 Phosphors Optimized for Better, Brighter LEDs

SANTA BARBARA, Calif., Nov. 1, 2013 — New guidelines for optimizing phosphors — a key component in white LEDs — could lead to brighter and more efficiently produced solid-state lighting.

Researchers at the University of California, Santa Barbara’s Solid State Lighting & Energy Center (SSLEC) developed the guidelines based on the rigidity of phosphor crystalline structure. Until recently, the preparation of phosphor materials was more an art than a science, based on finding crystal structures that act as hosts to activator ions, which convert the higher-energy blue light to lower-energy yellow/orange light.

This illustration demonstrates how bright blue LED light, shone through its complementary yellow phosphor, yields white light. Images courtesy of UCSB.

“These guidelines should permit the discovery of new and improved phosphors in a rational rather than trial-and-error manner,” said Ram Seshadri, a professor in the university’s Materials department, and in the Chemistry and Biochemistry department.

All of the recent advances in solid-state lighting have come from devices based on gallium nitride LEDs, Seshadri said, a technology that is largely credited to UCSB materials professor Shuji Nakamura, who invented the first high-brightness blue LED. In solid-state white-lighting technology, phosphors are applied to the LED chip in a way that allows the photons from the blue gallium nitride LED to pass through the phosphor, converting and mixing the blue light into the green-yellow-orange spectrum band. When combined evenly with the blue, the green-yellow-orange wavelength emits white light.

“So far, there has been no complete understanding of what make some phosphors efficient and others not,” Seshadri said. “In the wrong hosts, some of the photons are wasted as heat, and an important question is: How do we select the right hosts?”

As LEDs become brighter — for example, when they are used in vehicle front lights — they also tend to get warmer, which adversely affects the phosphor’s properties.

“Very few phosphor materials retain their efficiency at elevated temperatures,” said postdoc Jakoah Brgoch. “There is little understanding of how to choose the host structure for a given activator ion such that the phosphor is efficient, and such that the phosphor efficiency is retained at elevated temperatures.”

The researchers behind the breakthrough are (l-r) Steve DenBaars, Jakoah Brgoch and Ram Seshadri.

However, using calculations based on density functional theory, which was developed by UCSB professor and 1998 Nobel laureate Walter Kohn, the researchers determined that the rigidity of the crystalline host structure is a key factor in the efficiency of phosphors: the higher the rigidity, the better the phosphor. They also found that indicators of structural rigidity can be computed using density functional theory, allowing materials to be screened before they are prepared and tested.

This breakthrough puts efforts for high-efficiency, high-brightness, solid-state lighting on a fast track, they said.

“Our target is to get to 90 percent efficiency, or 300 lumens per watt,” said materials professor Steven DenBaars, who also is a professor of electrical and computer engineering and co-director of the SSLEC. Current incandescent light bulbs, by comparison, are at roughly 5 percent efficiency, and fluorescent lamps are a little more efficient at about 20 percent.

“We have already demonstrated up to 60 percent efficiency in lab demos,” DenBaars said.

The results appear in The Journal of Physical Chemistry C.

For more information, visit:

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